TTPs for Operations in the Information Environment at the Tactical Level
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Focus Area:

Influence and Information Capabilities

Project Cost:


Project Duration:

22 months




RAND NDRI produced a report detailing results of the study and offer recommendations improving the integration of OIE at the tactical level, including TTP recommended for adoption and areas requiring further TTP development.

End User:

US Army Cyber Command, Marine Corps Information Operation Center, HQ Dept of Army DCS G-3-5-7, USA Civil Affairs Psychological Operations Command, 151 Tactical Information Operations Group


This study reviewed and evaluated existing tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) for the integration and conduct of operations in the information environment (OIE) at the tactical level of war and identified requirements for OIE capabilities and integration at that level in order to identify effective TTPs for propagation across the joint force and other recommendations to close any identified gaps.

Operational Impact:

Results from this study support ongoing efforts to better understand and conduct OIE and information warfare in the US Army and Marine Corps. Specifically, findings and results from this study may contribute to service doctrine or technical manual updates related to IO and OIE and for multi-domain operations.


This study supported the ongoing efforts of the Armyís Information Warfare Design Planning Team in the designing of service level tactical training and experimentation, and to the content of the Marine Corps Information Operations Centerís periodic combined unit exercises (CUX). Additionally, this effort continues to support the reintroduction and integration of Information Warfare (IW) and OIE into the efforts of Army conventional and Special Forces units from the operational to tactical level, including the Stability Force Assistant Brigades.